These schedules include commitments made by the various WTO members, which allow certain foreign products or suppliers to access their markets. Calendars are an integral part of the agreements. In the printed version, these calendars cover approximately 30,000 pages for all WTO members. (d) CONTRACTING PARTIES require, at the request of a contracting party who applies restrictions under this section, that they be able to find that the restrictions are inconsistent with the provisions of this article or Article XIII (subject to Article XIV) and that they affect their exchanges. However, such a request is only made if contractING PARTIES have found that direct discussions between the parties concerned have not been successful. If there is no agreement as a result of the consultations with contractING PARTIES and if it finds that the restrictions are contrary to these provisions and that they cause or threaten harm to the trade of the party setting up the procedure, they recommend termination or modification of the restrictions. If the restrictions are not lifted or amended within the time limit prescribed by contractING PARTIES, they may exempt the party challenging the proceedings from these obligations to the party applying the restrictions they deem appropriate in the current circumstances. The GATS consists of two components: the framework agreement, which contains 29 articles and a series of annexes, ministerial decisions, etc., and the timing of commitments made by each Member State to aggregate the existing degree of openness or to lift existing restrictions (see Box 4). Although GATS coverage is universal for service sectors, liberalization commitments follow a positive list approach in which each participant lists in their calendar the conditions for market access and domestic treatment of foreign service providers in the sectors and types of procurement for which they have committed. Ninety-five timetables of specific commitments (the European Union has presented a common timetable on behalf of its twelve Member States) contain the results of the negotiations on access to services markets. With regard to the level of market opening to a service activity provided by each commitment, it depends on the existing regulatory regime and whether market access and national treatment have been limited by the importing country. Indeed, most calendars contain links to the existing level of access, while others also have liberalisation obligations. By incurring obligations, foreign service providers – and domestic customers of foreign service providers – are guaranteed that entry and operating conditions will not change to their detriment.