The United States and Mexico have reached agreement on a modernized, highly standardized chapter on intellectual property (IP), which provides effective and robust protection and application of intellectual property rights, which are essential to promoting innovation, stimulating economic growth and supporting American jobs. On September 30, 2018, the deadline for negotiations between Canada and the United States, an interim agreement was reached between the two countries, thus retaining the trilateral pact when the Trump administration submits the agreement to Congress.  The new name of the agreement was the United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMCA) and came into force on July 1, 2020.   During the 2016 U.S. presidential election, Donald Trump`s campaign included a promise to renegotiate or eliminate NAFTA if the renegotiations failed.  After the election, Trump made a series of changes that influenced trade relations with other countries. The exit from the Paris Agreement, the cessation of participation in the Trans-Pacific Partnership negotiations and the significantly larger increase in tariffs with China were some of the steps he took, which reinforced the fact that he was serious about changing NAFTA.  Much of the debate about the virtues and errors of the USMCA resembles the debate on all free trade agreements (FTAs), such as the nature of free trade agreements as public goods, potential violations of national sovereignty and the role of commercial, labour, environmental and consumer interests in the development of the language of trade agreements. On November 30, 2018, the USMCA was signed as planned by the three parties at the G20 summit in Buenos Aires.   Disputes over labour rights, steel and aluminum prevented ratification of this version of the agreement.   Canadian Deputy Prime Minister Chrystia Freeland, U.S. Trade Representative Robert Lightizer, and Mexican Under-Secretary of State for North America Jesus Seade officially signed a revised agreement on December 10, 2019, ratified by the three countries on March 13, 2020. Maquiladoras (Mexican assembly plants that absorb imported components and produce goods for export) have become the emblem of trade in Mexico.
They left the United States for Mexico, hence the debate about the loss of American jobs. Revenues in the maquiladora sector had increased by 15.5% since nafta in 1994.  Other sectors have also benefited from the free trade agreement and the share of non-cross-border exports to the United States has increased over the past five years [when?], while the share of exports from border states has declined. This has led to rapid growth in non-cross-border metropolitan areas such as Toluca, Leén and Puebla, all more populated than Tijuana, Ciudad Juérez and Reynosa. The Clinton administration negotiated an environmental agreement with Canada and Mexico, the North American Environmental Cooperation Agreement (NAAEC), which led to the creation of the Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC) in 1994. In order to allay concerns that nafta, the first regional trade agreement between a developing and two developed countries, would have negative effects on the environment, the Commission was tasked with carrying out an ex post-post environmental assessment it created one of the first ex-post frameworks for the environmental assessment of trade liberalization, which was to provide a certain amount of evidence regarding the initial assumptions concerning NAFTA and the environment. , such as the fear that NAFTA could create a “race to the bottom” of environmental regulation between the three countries or that NAFTA would put pressure on governments to strengthen their environmental protection.  The CEC organized four symposiums on assessing the impact of NAFTA on the environment and requested 47 contributions from leading independent experts on the subject.  Mr. Trudeau and Canadian Foreign Minister Chrystia Freeland announced that they would join the agreement if it was in Canada`s interest. Freeland returned prematurely from his dipl trip